Introductory Remarks
Pierre Grialou, Giuseppe Longo and Mitsuhiro Okada

Section I Images, Language and Reasoning in Humans

1. Some Ways Images Express and Promote Thought    Barbara Tversky

2. Questions on Two Cognitive Models of Deductive Reasoning
Pierre Grialou and Mitsuhiro Okada

Appendix to Chapter 2
Chizuru Shikishima, Juko Ando, Pierre Grialou, Ryo Takemura and Mitsuhiro Okada

3. Wittgenstein on the Logic of Picture
Jocelyn Benoist

Section II The Spatial and Visual Origins of Mathematical Reasoning

4. The Cognitive Foundations of Mathematics: Human Gestures in Proofsand Mathematical Incompleteness of Formalisms    Giuseppe Longo

5. Protomathematics, Perception and the Meaning of Mathematical Objects
Bernard Teissier

6. Topological Ape: Knots Tying and Untying and the Origins of Mathematics
Dominique Lestel and Chris Herzfeld

Section III Comparative Analysis of Reasoning

7. Weak Phantasmata in Human and Animal Visual Perception
Dieter Lohmar

8. Pigeon Categorization: Classification Strategies in a Non-linguistic Species
Ulrike Aust, Wilfried Apfalter and Ludwig Huber

9. Animal and Human Logics
Shigeru Watanabe